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Jamb Tutorial 2016 - Biology Class - Forum

Solutionz
Solutionz
Welcome to Solutionclass Jamb Tutorial Centre for
Biology class

Lecturers in charge - John Linus

OVER TO YOU NOW

Kenny [email protected]
Kenny [email protected]
Which part of the ear is responsible for the protection of sound

papjunior12
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Guest
Guest
who propounded that cell is a part of living thing

Guest
Guest
EMULSIFICATION OF FAT TAKE PLACE IN WHAT PART OF THE BODY

Guest
Guest
Originally posted by Guest
who propounded that cell is a part of living thing


robert hook

Mr Solution
Mr Solution
Helo all.happy to let u know dat Biology lecture will now be moving smoothly.According to timetable biology holds on Tuesdays,Thursdays nd Saturdays bt we can still do something on other days apart from these days


Classification of living things
living things are classified based on these seven things br /> kingdom
phylum
class
order
family
genus
species

Living things are classified into five kingdoms br /> -Monera
-Protista
-Fungi
-Plantae
-Animalia
however,virus did not fall in any of these because it possesses both feature of a living thing nd non living thing.

MONERA
-unicellular i.e. Single celled
-prokaryotic(cells without membrane)
-cells have no definite nucleus with nuclear membrane
-no sexual reproduction
-no celulose bt amino acid
examples: bacteria and blue green algae.

PROTISTA
-uncellular
-eukoryatic i.e. Cell with membrane
-reproduction is usually asexual bt mitosis or sexual by fusion of gametes.
Examples : paramecium, trypanosome,plasmodium,euglena(dual organism possesses plant and animal features)

FUNGI
-eucaryotic
-no true roots,stems and leaves
-lacks chlorophyll
-stores food in form of glycogen
-cell walls are made of chitin nt celulose
examples: rhizopus,mushroom,mucor,mildrews, yeast,toad stools and bread moulds

Mr Solution
Mr Solution
PLANTAE
they are divided into
-thallophyta
-bryophyta
-tracheophyta

Thallophyta
-no true roots,stems and leaves
-example chlamydomonas,spirogyra,volvox

Bryophyta
-multicellular green plants
-lacks true roots,stems and leaves
- non vascular plants
they exhibit alteration of generation
-examples mosses and liverworts

In tracheophyta we have pteridophyta and spermatophyta which is divided into angiosperms and gymnosperms.
Angiosperms is divided into monocotyledon(one cotyledon) and dicotyledon.

Animalia is made up of
-pisces(fishes)
-aves(birds.)
-reptile(they have in complete four chambered heart e.g. Snake crocodile tortoise etc)
-amphibian(they have three chambered heart.e.g frog,toad,newt)
-mammals(four chambered heart.e.g man,goat sheep etc)

Plant Nutrition
Plant being autotrophic in nature exhibit photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants manufacture making use of carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
It is represented by the equation
6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2

Note that photosynthesis is exhibited by green plants in only. Those green plants contains a pigment known as chlorophyll which gives them the green colour

We have autotrophic and heterotrophic type of nutrition. in autotrophic nutrition the organisms manufacture their food by themselves while in heterotrophic nutrition the organisms depend on other organisms for their own food

Mr Solution
Mr Solution
CELL
Cell is the structural and functional unit of a living organism.all living organisms are made of cell.All cells come from previously existing ones.

Forms in which living cells exist br /> Independent living organism:these are organisms which possess only one cell.they use this only cell to carry out all the life activities.eg amoeba,euglena,paramecium,chlamydomonas.
Amoeba moves with the aid of pseudopodia while paramecium moves with cilia.
Euglena virdis is a dual organism(contains both plant and animal features).it contains chloroplast,pyrenoidsnd paramecium granules as plant features.chlamydomonas moves with flagellum.

As a colony br /> here the cells are joined together nd can't be differentiated from each other.eg volvox,pandorina nd sponges

as filaments are spirogyra,zygnema ,oscillateria etc
In cell as part of living organism are from Cell to
Tissue(group of similar cells performing specific function)
Organ (similar tissue performing specific function)
system(group of organs performing specific function)

Now let's look at the functions of some parts of cell

Nucleus : this controls all life activities of the cell
Chromosome : it contains the DNA which stores genetic traits.
Mitochondria : energy is released here and it's the site for respiration.
Chloroplasts: they contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis in green plants
Lysosome : site for respiratory enzymes
Ribosome : responsible for protein synthesis
Cell membrane : protects your cell

Mr Solution
Mr Solution
Differences between animal cell and plant cell

Plant have cellulose cell wall while animal cell lacks it.
Plants have chloroplasts while animal has not.
Plants have large vacuoles while animal has small one.
Plants have no centriole but animals have it.


Similarities between plant cell and animal cell
They both have in common ;Nucleus, golgi bodies, mitochondria, cytoplasm, Lysosome, nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum etc


SKELETON
skeleton is the bony frame work of the body which provides support, shape and protection to the soft tissues and organs in animals. It helps us to move from one place to another

Cuticle :this is composed of a protein called chitin which is a non living substance. animals with this type of skeletal material exhibit moulding. Moulding also known as ecdysis is a process where by an organism sheds its old skeleton and put on a new one. examples are insects, crabs, scorpions, prawns etc

Bone :this is a tissue which is made up of osteocytes collagen and minerals mainly calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Vertebrates have bones.

Types of skeleton
1 . hydrostatic skeleton :this is possessed by soft bodied animal example earthworm and anemones
2 exoskeleton :it is found at the part of the body of the animals example euglena, hydra, snail spider millipede tapeworm paramecium
3 endoskeleton :found inside the body of the animals example man

Guest

Story Story
Story Story
In biology, an organism is any contiguous living
system,
such as an animal, plant or bacterium. All known types
of
organisms are capable of some degree of response to
stimuli, reproduction, growth and development and
homeostasis. An organism consists of one or more cells;
when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular
organism;
and when it has more than one it is known as a
multicellular
organism. Most unicellular organisms are of microscopic
size and are thus classified as microorganisms. Humans
are
multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of
cells
grouped into specialized tissues and organs.

Story Story
Story Story
Characteristics of Living organisms
:
they require nutrition
they respire
they excrete their waste
they respond to their surroundings
they move
they control their internal conditions
they reproduce
they grow and develop.



M ovement
R espiration
S ensitivity
G rowth
R eproduction
E xcretion
N utrition


Movement
All living things move in some way. This may be obvious,
such as animals that are able to walk, or less obvious, such
as plants that have parts that move to track the movement
of the sun.
Earthworms use circular and longitudinal muscles to move
through soil or along surfaces.
Respiration
Respiration is a chemical reaction that happens within cells
to release energy from food.
The food that earthworms eat supplies their body with
energy-rich molecules such as glucose. On entering the cells
of their body, these molecules are broken down in a series
of steps to release energy to be used by the body, producing
carbon dioxide and water as waste products.
Sensitivity
The ability to detect changes in the surrounding
environment.
Earthworms have light-sensitive cells scattered in their outer
skin. Their skin cells are also sensitive to touch and
chemicals.
Growth
All living things grow.
Earthworms hatch from eggs and can grow up to a metre or
more in length! Some earthworms are also able to regrow
small parts of their body that have been lost or injured.
Reproduction
The ability to reproduce and pass genetic information onto
their offspring.
Earthworms have both sperm and eggs within their bodies
(they are hermaphrodites) but they cannot self-fertilise and
need to mate with another individual. After mating, a cocoon
containing the fertilised eggs is deposited in the soil.
Excretion
Getting rid of waste.
Earthworms excrete waste from their anus – the last
segment of their body.
Nutrition
The intake and use of nutrients. This occurs in very different
ways in different kinds of living things.
Earthworm nutrition comes from a variety of sources,
depending on their species. Food types include manure,
compost, plant material, fungi, microorganisms and
decaying animals. They take in food through their mouths.


In addition, all living organisms contain nucleic acids (DNA)
and have the ability to control their internal conditions. This
is called homeostasis. Finally, all living organisms can die.

Story Story
Story Story
] Plant Cell and Animal Cell - Difference and Comparison


Plant and animal cells have several differences and
similarities. For example, animal cells do not have a cell wall
or chloroplasts but plant cells do. Animal cells are round
and irregular in shape while plant cells have fixed,
rectangular shapes.
Plant and animal cells are both eukaryotic cells, so they
have several features in common, such as the presence of a
cell membrane, and cell organelles, like the nucleus,
mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum.


Chloroplasts
Plants are autotrophs; they produce energy from sunlight
through the process of photosynthesis, for which they use
cell organelles called chloroplasts. Animal cells do not have
chloroplasts. In animal cells, energy is produced from food
(glucose) via the process of cellular respiration. Cellular
respiration occurs in mitochondria on animal cells, which
are structurally somewhat analogous to chloroplasts, and
also perform the function of producing energy. However,
plant cells also contain mitochondria.
Shape
Another difference between plant cells and animal cells is
that animal cells are round whereas plant cells are
rectangular.
Further, all animal cells have centrioles whereas only some
lower plant forms have centrioles in their cells.
Cell Wall
Plant cells have a rigid cell wall that surrounds the cell
membrane. Animal cells do not have a cell wall. When
looking under a microscope, the cell wall is an easy way to
distinguish plant cells.
Vacuoles
Shape and size of vacuoles
Animal cells have one or more small vacuoles whereas plant
cells have one large central vacuole that can take up to 90%
of cell volume.
Difference in function of vacuoles
In plant cells, the function of vacuoles is to store water and
maintain turgidity of the cell. Vacuoles in animal cells store
water, ions and waste.

Story Story
Story Story
] Levels of Organization of Living Things

The levels of organization of living things include cells,tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms.


There are 13 levels of organization.
In sequence, they are
represented as

atoms
molecules,
organelles,
cells,
tissues,
organs,
organ systems,
organisms,
population,
community,
ecosystem,
biome, and biosphere.


Atom It is the most basic and fundamental unit of matter. It
consists of a positively charged nucleus that is made up of
protons and neutrons, and revolving around them are the
negatively charged electrons. An atom that consists of an
equal number of protons and electrons is neutral and
stable. In case of unequal number of protons and electrons,
it is termed as an ion. Ions are either positive or negative.
Molecule: The formation of chemical bonds between two or
more atoms leads to the formation of a molecule. It is one
of the most fundamental and stable components of matter.
Chemical compounds exist as molecules.
Organelle It is the subunit of a cell, and consists of a group
of functioning biomolecules. Organelles take part in the
chemical reactions and interactions in the cellular processes
of an organism. Organelles in eukaryotic cells are different
from those in prokaryotic ones. A few examples include
nucleus and chloroplasts (plant cells), and golgi bodies and
mitochondria (animal cells).
Cell: It is considered as the basic unit and building block of
life. It is bound by a cell membrane, and possesses a
nucleus which acts as its brain. Cytoplasm surrounds the
nucleus, which contains cell organelles like mitochondria,
ribosomes, vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplasts,
peroxisomes, and ventricles. The average number of cells in
a human body is 100 trillion
They are known to bring about
conversion of nutrients into energy, reproduction (cell
division), and to carry out specialized functions.

Basically, they are of 2 types; prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
Prokaryotic cells have a smaller size and simpler form, and lack a
nucleus.

Eukaryotic cells are more specialized in structure
than the prokaryotic ones. Moreover, they are larger in size
(by almost 15 times)


Tissue[b]: This level is a combination of different types of cells
which perform specialized functions. The group of cells that
form a tissue need not be identical, but they should have the
same origin. Different types are the nervous, muscle,
connective, and epithelial tissues. Connective tissues are
fibrous in nature, and they are made up of cells that are
separated by an extracellular matrix. Muscle tissues are
actively contractile, and useful for producing force and
motion. Nervous tissues form organs like the brain and the
spinal cord. Epithelial tissues cover the surface of body
organs.
[b]Organ
It performs certain functions with the help of
different tissues. The major organs of animals include lungs,
brain, liver, etc., whereas roots, stem, and leaves are the
different organs of plants. Organs can be classified on the
basis of the functions they perform. For example, in case of
animals, the tongue, ears, eyes, skin, and nose are sensory
organs. Flowers and seeds are the reproductive parts of
plants. These units are formed by tissues that serve a
common function. There are two types of tissues that form
an organ; the main and sporadic tissues. For example, in the
heart, myocardium is the main tissue, while the blood,
nerves, and connective tissues are sporadic.
Organ System Organs working together to perform certain
functions form organ systems. Examples are the circulatory
system in animals, and the vascular system in plants. The
organs in an organ system are interdependent, i.e., they
work in harmony to carry out various body functions. For
example, the digestive system that carries out the process of
digestion consists of salivary glands, stomach, esophagus,
gallbladder, liver, intestines, pancreas, rectum, and anus.
Organism An organism could either be unicellular or
multicellular. The ones that are closely related can be
grouped together under a single genus. An organism can be
defined as the fully functional form of a living being that can
thrive in a particular environment.
These are the basic levels of organization of living things.
However, in addition to the above, there are others like
population, community, ecosystem, biome, and biosphere.
It is necessary to note that the higher we go in this manner,
it becomes difficult and more complicated to clearly explain
the levels, which means they are not as simply defined as
cells, tissues, and organs. For example, though the
ecosystem is placed one level above community, the former
is not a group of communities. Roughly defined, it is an
environment where organisms of different populations live
together and evolve.
Population: It is the term used in reference to a group of
organisms which belong to the same species. They undergo
interbreeding, and share food and space. The population of
a particular species indicates a close interaction between its
organisms.
Community Two or more populations together constitute a
community. It is characterized by interactions that take place
between constituent populations of different species. There
are various ways like competition, parasitism, predation,
commensalism, and mutualism, by which populations
belonging to different species interact with each other. A
community can thrive in the same region, but within the
territory marked by the particular constituent populations.
Ecosystem As we move up on this ladder of organization,
the complexity tends to increase. The term ecosystem is
defined as an area or environment, where one or more
communities can thrive and flourish. However, this stage is
not the same as community. In fact, it is a greater entity that
provides space for different communities. Thus, the
populations of many species can together thrive in a
particular ecosystem like a desert, grassland, rainforest, etc.
Biome It is an entity that is similar to an ecosystem. The
definition of this stage is made in terms of the conditions
(and not just space) that are suited to a group of
communities (plants, animals, microbes, etc.). Classification
of this level is carried out on the basis of certain criteria like
the environmental conditions in which the constituent
organisms thrive. The structure of plants is an important
criterion used for classifying biomes. It divides the plants
into groups like shrubs, trees, grasses, etc.
Biosphere: It is simply defined as the place, area, and zone
where the entire life on Earth exists. The hydrosphere,
lithosphere, and atmosphere, along with all the above-
mentioned levels, together constitute the biosphere. It is the
amalgamation of all the life forms on Earth, right from the
microscopic viruses, bacteria, algae, etc., to the largest
animals like blue whales and elephants.
Thus, the above levels present before us the systematic
structure and functioning of various components of the
organization of life forms. The biological, or precisely the
living entities of our planet constitute a very complex and
sophisticated system. This article gives a brief idea of the
richly varied life on our planet.

[email protected]
[email protected]
Originally posted by Guest
EMULSIFICATION OF FAT TAKE PLACE IN WHAT PART OF THE BODY
takes place in the duodenum

Guest

Guest
Guest
Your Text Can Not Be Published Because It Contains A Link That We Consider As Spam

Dont Spam Here

Guest
Guest
Karo u are correct,emusification of fat take in the duodenum.

Guest
Guest
Karo u are correct,emusification of fat take place in the duodenum.

Guest

Guest
Guest
Originally posted by Guest
EMULSIFICATION OF FAT TAKE PLACE IN WHAT PART OF THE BODY

Guest
Guest
Your Text Can Not Be Published Because It Contains A Link That We Consider As Spam

Dont Spam Here

Guest
Guest
i am really appreciate with this your emphasis and it x also an aid to us in dis 2016 jamb

Farouqh
Farouqh
Originally posted by Solutionz
Welcome to Solutionclass Jamb Tutorial Centre for
Biology class

Lecturers in charge - John Linus

OVER TO YOU NOW

Guest
Guest
Originally posted by Guest
EMULSIFICATION OF FAT TAKE PLACE IN WHAT PART OF THE BODY



it take place in liver

Guest

Guest

Guest
Guest
Moshood it take place in the large intestine

Guest
Guest
Originally posted by Guest
who propounded that cell is a part of living thing
Rudolf von Virchow


Guest

Guest

Guest
Guest
sir pls I need tommorrows ans on health thanks

Guest
Guest
[color=#990000][quote=Solutionz][color=#804000]Welcome to Solutionclass Jamb Tutorial Centre for
Biology class

Lecturers in charge - John Linus

OVER TO YOU NOW
[/color][/quote][/color]

Guest

Guest
Guest
PLS SHOW ME 2016 WAEC QUESTION AND ANSWER

RonaldEi
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